It is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be mild, moderate or severe. It has a lot of psychosocial impact on the patient. It presents as reddish papules, comedones, nodules and even cysts. If severe, it can leave scarring as well.
Hormonal effects, the intake of certain medicines, the use of cosmetics and/or the application of pomade on hair can lead to acne on the forehead. There should be no intake of chocolates, fried food or nuts.
One should avoid using the ‘so-called’ fairness creams. If hormonal contraception is being used, it is advisable to shift to other methods of contraception. Lastly, excessive application of hair pomades should be avoided.
Topical and systemic treatment options are available. Modalities like lasers can be used for the treatment of scarring. A dermatologist should be consulted without delay.
It presents itself in the form of itchy and red wheals. They can disappear from one part of the body within 24 hours but they can also re-appear on any other part of the body. The average lifespan of an urticarial lesion is less than 24 hours. If urticaria persists for 6 weeks or less, it is referred to as Acute Urticaria. If it lasts for more than 6 weeks, it is called Chronic Urticaria.
Infections, infestations, medicines and certain foods like mushrooms, eggs and beef are major causes. Urticaria can be idiopathic as well, i.e. without any established causes.
H1 and H2 receptor blockers are highly recommended for treatment. Topical soothing agents are also very effective. Sometimes a short course of steroids is also required. Mast cell stabilizers are used in resistant cases. The complete removal of the cause is essential which is why it is very important to see a skin specialist for proper workup and treatment.
This is a common skin disorder in which the patient is presented with brownish hyper-pigmented patches on the face. It can involve other areas like the outer aspect of arms, the neck etc.
The main causes are excessive exposure to the sun and the usage of oral contraceptives. Sometimes, melasma is also triggered by pregnancy.
The regular use of a sunblock with an SPF of more than 30 is recommended and exposure to sunlight during the peak hours of the day (11:00 A.M TO 4:00 P.M) should also be avoided. Light colored umbrellas and broad-brimmed hats should be used to avoid the sunlight. Sunblock should be reapplied after every 2 hours or every time after contact with water is made. The usage of oral contraceptives should be avoided. It should be noted here that melasma that occurs during pregnancy usually goes away on its own after delivery.
Melasma may be difficult to treat at times. Mainly, the treatment includes the usage of sunblock and sometimes some skin lightening agents are also used. Chemical peeling is also very beneficial. A skin specialist should be contacted for treatment.
4. HAIR LOSS:
Almost every third person complains of hair loss. It could either be diffuse thinning or patchy hair loss.
Hair loss can occur due to several reasons. It could be genetic, stress-related, due to nutritional deficiencies, medicinal side-effects, fungal infections, as a part of any other disease and chemotherapy.
You should always consult a skin specialist so that the exact cause and the type of hair loss can be established and treated accordingly. Hair transplant is recommended in some cases.
Contributed by Dr. Shazia Hameed.
18 Nov 2018